NEW TECHNICAL NOTE - SPA AND HOT TUB TECHNICAL OPERATION FOLLOWING COVID-19 CLOSURE

Reference Documents

Welcome to our reference documents library. This section is a mixed bag of material of use to researchers and others.

It is constantly being developed, both in extent and in the way it is organised, and suggestions are welcomed in both these regards.

Please contact admin@pwtag.org with suggestions or to submit new documents for this reference archive.

How to use our reference document library

You can search through our library using the following process:

  1. Using the search field, type in a keyword which you are looking for resources about.
  2. The results will automatically filter to show documents with that keyword in the title, or if it has been ‘tagged’ as relevant for that keyword.
  3. Click or tap the link to download your resource.

If you think a document has been incorrectly tagged, or requires more tags, please let us know using the email address above.

Document
Year
Link
Tags
APVMA guide for demonstrating efficacy of pool and spa sanitisers2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3879/downloadsanitisers, disinfection
Asthma and swimming: a meta-analysis2008https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3880/downloadasthma, respiratory health
Ecological association between childhood asthma and availability of indoor chlorinated swimming pools in Europe2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3881/downloadasthma, chlorination, respiratory health
Chlorinated swimming pools and respiratory health2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3882/downloadrespiratory health, asthma, chlorination
Lifetime swimming pool attendance, asthma, eczema and respiratory symptoms in school-age children2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3883/downloadasthma, children, eczema, respiratory health
Effects of swimming pool water on cementitious grouts2004https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3884/downloadgrouts
Biofilm formation at non chlorinated swimming pool conditions2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3885/downloadbiofilms, disinfection
Biofilms and chlorine in a simulated drinking water distribution system1999https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3886/downloadbiofilms, chlorination, drinking water
Bladder cancer and exposure to water disinfection by-products through ingestion, bathing, showering, and swimming in pools2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3887/downloadcancer, disinfection, chlorination
Chemical deliveries to swimming pools2004https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3888/downloadchemicals
Approved classification and labelling guide (Sixth edition) for supply as per Chemical Regulations 2009 (CHIP 4)2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3889/downloadchemicals, classification
What REACH means for users of chemicals2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3890/downloadchemicals
Chemical safety - working with substances hazardous to health2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3891/downloadchemicals
Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3892/downloadasthma, children, respiratory health
Chlorine decay - a summary of work undertaken at Bristol University2002https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3893/downloadchlorination
Occurence of chlorite and chlorate in swimming pool water2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3894/downloadchlorination, disinfection
Efficacy of copper and silver ions and reduced levels of free chlorine in inactivation of Legionella pneumophila1989https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3895/downloaddisinfection, legionella, legionairres
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis linked to swimming at the Eastwood Pool, Giffnock2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3897/downloadcryptosporidia
Bench-marking pool water treatment for coping with Cryptosporidium2002https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3896/downloadcryptosporidia
Capture, recovery and isolation of Cryptosporidium and advice as to how pool operators could implement this in practice2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3898/downloadcryptosporidia
Decontaminating swimming pools and managing Cryptosporidium2004https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3899/downloadcryptosporidia
Guidance for the investigation of Cryptosporidium linked to swimming pools: monitoring, risk assessment and key public health messages2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3900/downloadcryptosporidia
An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis at a swimming club – can rapid field epidemiology limit the spread of illness?2013https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3901/downloadcryptosporidia
The management of swimming pools associated with Cryptosporidiosis or contaminated by Cryptosporidium oocysts2003https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3902/downloadcryptosporidia
Cryptosporidia – the methodology for effective action in the UK2008https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3903/downloadcryptosporidia
The removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the treatment of swimming pool watershttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3904/downloadcryptosporidia
Cryptosporidium and Giardia in swimming pools in the Netherlands2004https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3905/downloadcryptosporidia
Cryptosporidiosis in the United States; Changing Reporting and Ramifications for Public Health and the Aquatics Sector2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3906/downloadcryptosporidia
Filtration removals and swim diaper retention of Cryptosporidium in swimming pools2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3908/downloadcryptosporidia, diapers
Hyperchlorination to kill Cryptosporidium2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3909/downloadcryptosporidia, chlorination
Water Treatment Design for the London Aquatic Centre 20122009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4017/downloadwater treatment
Vomit and faecal accident response2005https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4016/downloadvomit, faeces
UV and applications in water treatment of commercial swimming pools2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4015/downloaduv, ultraviolet, water treatment
The use of UV for destruction of combined chlorine2004https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4014/downloaduv, ultraviolet
Effects of medium-pressure UV lamps radiation on water quality in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool2005https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4013/downloaduv, ultraviolet
Full scale test of UV-based water treatment technologies at Gladsaxe Sport Centre – with and without advanced oxidation mechanisms2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4012/downloaduv, ultraviolet, water treatment, dbp, thm, trihalomethanes, disinfection by-products
Trihalomethanes in Lisbon indoor swimming pools: occurrence and determining factors2012https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4011/downloadthm, trihalomethanes
Trichloramine prevention remains better than cure2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4010/downloadchlorination
Toxicological characterisation of dermal exposure to DBPs by an in vitro skin model2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4009/downloaddisinfection by-products, chlorination, dbp
Total fluid and water consumption and the joint effect of exposure to disinfection by-products on risk of bladder cancer2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4008/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, cancer
Current issues associated with swimming pools, spas and similar recreational water environments2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4001/downloadregulations, standards
WHO guidelines for drinking water quality2008https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4003/downloadstandards, drinking water
Bathing water conditioning2003https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4002/downloadstandards
Swimming pool attendance, asthma, allergies and lung function in the ALSPAC child cohort2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4004/downloadasthma, children, respiratory health
Swimming pool disinfection techniques and pitfalls2005https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4005/downloaddisinfection, chlorination
Swimming pool covers – operation and safety issues2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4007/downloadpool covers
Water ingestion during swimming activities in a pool: a pilot study2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4006/downloadcyanuric acid, ingestion, children
Managing swimming pool associated Cryptosporidiosis in holiday hotels2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3910/downloadcryptosporidia
CT disinfection made simple2002https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3912/downloaddisinfection
Acute exposure to disinfection by-products in swimming pools and short-term changes in respiratory biomarkers2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3913/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, asthma
Definition and quantification of anthropogenic initial and continual biochemical bathing load in swimming pools2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3914/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, water treatment, bathing load
Disinfection by-products in swimming pools: minimize or avoid?2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3915/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, UV
Genotoxic effects in swimmers exposed to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pools2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3916/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, cancer
Haloacetonitriles – another important group of disinfection by-products in swimming pool water2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3917/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products
Nitrogen-containing disinfection by-products in indoor pool settings - formation and exposurehttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3918/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products
Numerical simulation and modelling of a typical swimming pool for disinfection by-products assessment2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3919/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, chlorination
Prevalence of irritative symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3920/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, thm, trihalomethanes
Identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3928/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, chlorination, bromine
Removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts by filtration in the treatment of swimming pool waters2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3911/downloadcryptosporidia, water treatment
Probabilistic modelling of chlorination by-product risk from indoor swimming pool use2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3921/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, chlorination
Removal of free and combined chlorine at GAC surfaces and impact on pool water quality2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3922/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, granular activated carbon, GAC
COC second statement on chlorinated drinking water and cancer2008https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3923/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, drinking water, cancer, chlorination
Short-term changes in respiratory biomarkers after swimming in a chlorinated pool2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3925/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, trihalomethanes, thm, respiratory health
COC statement on chlorinated drinking water and reproductive outcomes2004https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3924/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products, drinking water
The Good, the Bad, and the Volatile: Can We Have Both Healthy Pools and Healthy People?2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3926/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products
Trichloramine in the air of indoor pools in Bavaria2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3927/downloaddbp, disinfection by-products
Efficient ventilation: displacement ventilation and air curtain zoning2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3933/downloaddesign, ventilation, facilities
Noise at work - guidance for employers on the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 20052005https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3934/downloaddesign, hearing, management, facilities
Sport England swimming pool design guidance2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3935/downloaddesign, facilities
Development of a pool-model to study the impact of different treatment processes on disinfection by-productshttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3936/downloaddpb, disinfection by-products, thm, chloramines
COSHH guidance on diluting chemical concentrates2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3937/downloadchemicals, management, regulations
Methods for assessing the disease burden from swimming2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3938/downloaddisease, infections, asthma, respiratory health
Legionnaires’ disease: controlling the risks associated with using spa baths2003https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3939/downloaddisease, legionnaires, hot tub, jacuzzi, legionella
Legionnaires’ disease - the control of legionella bacteria in water systems2008https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3941/downloaddisease, legionnaires, legionella, hse
Sodium hypochlorite and chlorine gas: design, handling, and storage issues2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3942/downloaddisinfectants, chemicals, chlorination
American national standard for suction entrapment avoidance in swimming pools, wading pools, spas, hot tubs, and catch basins2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3929/downloaddesign, engineering, facilities, apsp, jacuzzi, nsf, filters, installation
International standard for equipment for swimming pools, spas, hot tubs and other recreational water facilities2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3930/downloaddesign, jacuzzi, facilities, nsf, filters, pumps, installation
Installation of ceramic tile in swimming pools2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3931/downloaddesign, installation, grouts
Bulk storage of liquid chlorine (edition 7)2005https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3943/downloaddisinfectants, chemicals, chlorination, tanks, facilities
Effect of free and combined available residual chlorine upon bacteria in swimming pools1950https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3944/downloaddisinfection, disinfectants, bacteria
Disinfection of drinking water (Australian guidelines)https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3945/downloaddisinfection, drinking water, disinfectants, chlorine, chloramines
Commercial operating experiences of chlorine-free water; disinfection in spa and wellness center, Sárvár, Hungary2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3946/downloaddisinfection
ORP testing and chemical automation for swimming pools and spas1990https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3947/downloaddisinfection, oxidation-reduction potential
Review and assessment of alternative water disinfection technologies for municipal swimming pools in the Netherlands2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3948/downloaddisinfection, dbp, disinfection by-products, water treatment
Survey of swimming pool / spa sanitizers and sanitation systems2001https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3949/downloaddisinfection, hot tubs, jacuzzi, chlorination, bromine, UV
Swimming pool shock treatment2004https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3950/downloaddisinfection, disease, water treatment
The significance of some nitrogen related hygienic parameters in swimming pools2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3951/downloaddisinfection, trichloramine
Requirements for recreational water facility equipment2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3953/downloaddesign, facilities, engineering, standards
Filter backwashing2005https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3954/downloadfilters, backwashing, drinking water, filtration
Optimizing your plant's filter performance2000https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3955/downloadfilters, backwashing, design, facilities, filtration
Are swimming pool filters really removing Cryptosporidium?https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3956/downloadfiltration, filters, cryptosporidium
Comparing crushed recycled glass to silica sand for dual media filtration2002https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3957/downloadfiltration, filters, drinking water
Fine particle monitor trial at Leicester Leys Leisure Centre2003https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3958/downloadfiltration, filters, fpm, cryptosporidium
Impact of split flow treatment by coagulation/ultrafiltration on particle concentrations in pool water2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3959/downloadfiltration, filters, water treatment, ultrafiltration
Particles and turbidity in pool water - removal by in-line filtration and modelling of daily courses2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3960/downloadfiltration, filters
OECD guidance document for demonstrating efficacy of pool and spa disinfectants in laboratory and field testing2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3964/downloadguidance, disinfectants
Best practice guidelines for water management in aquatic leisure centres (Sydney Water)2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3965/downloadguidance, water treatment, facilities
Health and water quality of swimming pools: the Italian regulatory guidelineshttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3967/downloadguidance, water treatment, facilities
Recommended standards for swimming pool design and operation1996https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3932/downloaddesign, facilities, management, standards, guidance
Study of the diversity of E.coli strains isolated from aquatic environmentshttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3952/downloade coli, chlorination, bacteria
Practical experience with treating pool water by membrane filters, UV and electro-chlorination2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3961/downloadfiltration, filters, chlorination, UV
The filter – a source of (re)contamination2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3962/downloadfiltration, filters, contamination, tcdo, backwash
Effects of high bathing loads on pool water treated by coagulation-ultrafiltration2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3963/downloadfiltration, ultrafiltration, filters, water treatment
Infection at work: controlling the risks2003https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3968/downloadinfections, management
Study of the diversity of E.coli strains isolated from swimming pool waters2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3969/downloade.coli, infections, chlorination
Is chlorine in deep water?2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3970/downloadchlorine, disinfectants, lidos, water treatment
Chemical aspects of swimming bath treatment2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3971/downloadmanagement, facilities, water treatment, chemicals
Implementation of the HACCP methodology in swimming poolshttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3972/downloadmanagement, operation, hazard analysis
Introduction of the parameter 'total organic carbon' (TOC) as a standard for the quality control of swimming pool waterhttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3973/downloadmanagement, operation, total organic carbon, toc
DFE guidance for managing school swimming pools1993https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3974/downloadmanagement, operation, guidance, children, schools
Sustainability issues in swimming pools and spas2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3975/downloadmanagement, operation, sustainability, jacuzzi, design, facilities
Swimming pool pest management: a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators and swimming pool operatorshttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3976/downloadmanagement, operation, disinfectants, facilities, testing, chlorination, filtration
The effects of user groups and rest periods on swimming pool water quality2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3977/downloadmanagement, operation, facilities, chloramine, quality
Mycobacterium avium complex fact sheet2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3982/downloadbacteria, disease
Nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) determination in indoor swimming pools: proposal for a new method2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3983/downloadnitrogen trichloride
Ozone treatment of commercial swimming poolshttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3985/downloadozone, water treatment, disinfectant
Benefits of carbon dioxide as pH reducer in chlorinated indoor swimming pools2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3986/downloadph, chlorination
Carbon dioxide in water equilibriumhttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3987/downloadph, chemicals, chemical control
Effect of selection of pH in swimming pools on formation of chlorination by-products2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3988/downloadph, chlorination, dbp, disinfection by-products, bromide, haloacetonitriles, trihalomethans
Efficient pool vacuuming leads to positive effects on the chlorine consumption in swimming poolshttps://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3989/downloadpool cleaning, chlorine
Faecal incident response recommendations for pool staff2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3990/downloadfaeces, management, contamination, guidance
Pool & spa management information system - a database for better information and supervision2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3991/downloadmanagement, database, facilities
An outbreak of pseudomonas folliculitis associated with a swimming pool2002https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3992/downloadbacteria, disease, disinfectants, ph, biofilms
Exposure to trichloramine and respiratory symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3993/downloadrespiratory health, trichloramines, asthma
Indoor swimming pools, water chlorination and respiratory health2002https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3994/downloadrespiratory health, asthma, chlorination
Respiratory health and baby swimming2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3995/downloadrespiratory health, children, babies, asthma
Respiratory and ocular symptoms among employees of a hotel indoor waterpark resort2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3996/downloadrespiratory health, asthma
Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis in swimmers: clinical and cytological aspects2010https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3997/downloadrhinitis
Sodium hypochlorite - general information for the consumer2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3998/downloadchemicals, facilities
Management of spa pools - controlling the risks of infection2006https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3999/downloadspa baths, jacuzzi, bacteria, disinfectants, guidance, legionella
Spa recreational waters and wellness: state-of-the-art and new perspectives for public health2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/4000/downloadspa baths, spa pools, disinfection
Microbiological contamination and cleaning of balance tanks2011https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3978/downloadmmicrobiology, tanks, facilities
Pool water microbiological testing – further update2007https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3980/downloadmicrobiology, standards, testing, guidance
Presence of mycobacteria in Portuguese swimming pools2009https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3979/downloadmycobacteria, disinfection, bacteria, biofilms
Outdoor swimming pools and the risks of asthma and allergies during adolescence2008https://www.swimming.org/library/documents/3984/downloadchildren, outdoor pools, lido, asthma, respiratory health, chlorination
Top